German Revolution, Berlin November 1918
20th Century

German Revolution

Germany, October 1918. The war was lost, and the military High Command had informed Emperor William II that there was no more hope, and urged him to ask for an armistice on the basis of US President Wilson’s “Fourteen Points”. As it was clear that Wilson would not negotiate with the […]

Old view of Siebengebirge and Rhine from Rolandseck
20th Century

Weimar Republic

Germany, 1918/1919. After the defeat in the World War I, Germany was in disastrous shape. The war had ended, but the country was not in peace. Emperor Wilhelm II had finally abdicated, the Social Democrat Friedrich Ebert (SPD) had taken over government, but he could not win the old elites for […]

Bonn Rhine bridge
20th Century

Nazi Germany

On January 30, 1933, pressured by former Chancellor Franz von Papen and other staunch conservatives, President Hindenburg had finally appointed Hitler Chancellor. Hitler immediately took measures to achieve his anti-democratic goals. On March 24, 1933, the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act (in German “Ermächtigungsgesetz”), a law by which Parliament ceded […]

Hotel Petersberg, Chancellor Adenauer, his Mercedes Benz
20th Century

Federal Republic

Germany, 1848. After World War II, Germany had to start all over again. The Western part of the country, occupied by England, France and the USA and since 1948 combined into the trizone, should be governed democratically. The Basic Law On September 1, 1948, the Parliamentary Council (an interim parliament) […]

Great war, gas attack, poppy
20th Century

WW1 Centennial

A hundred years ago, the Great War raged in Europe. The sequel to my emigrants’ story At home on the Rhine and in America, set in the Rhineland between 1914 and 1922, depicts the hardships that our emigrants and their family and friends in Europe endure. The Allied Rhineland occupation brings […]