Bonn around 1700
Early Modern Age

Age of absolutism

Holy Roman Empire, at the end of the 17th Century. After the Thirty Years War, large areas were desolated and deserted. Since the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, the Catholic, Protestant and Calvinist confessions were recognized, but the Anabaptists were persecuted. With their demands for religious liberty and a radical […]

Coblenz, Friedrich Wilhelm IV, Heine
Prussian Rhineland

Prussian Rhine Province

The Rhineland around 1815. After the victory over Napoleon, the whole of the Rhineland, Westphalia, and some other territories had fallen to Prussia, so also the Seven Mountains now belonged to the State of Prussia under King Frederick William III (in German Friedrich Wilhelm III., 1797-1840). At first, there were […]

German Revolution, Berlin November 1918
20th Century

German Revolution

Germany, October 1918. The war was lost, and the military High Command had informed Emperor William II that there was no more hope, and urged him to ask for an armistice on the basis of US President Wilson’s “Fourteen Points”. As it was clear that Wilson would not negotiate with the […]

Hogenberg, attack on Königswinte
Early Modern Age

Lutherans, Calvinists, Anabaptists

The Rhineland around 1530. Since the Late Middle Ages, large parts of our region including the villages of Oberdollendorf, Niederdollendorf, Küdinghoven, Oberkassel and Honnef with the Löwenburg mountain belonged to the Duchy of Berg. By the time of the reformation, the duchies of Jülich, Cleves (on the left bank of […]

Siebengebirge history, At the Border of the Roman Empire
Roman Era

At the border of the Roman Empire

Unfortunately, we know little about the Germanics in those days,and what we know comes from Roman sources. The archaeologists have found only very little in the Seven Mountains from the Roman era. Caesar’s Gallic War had brought Roman legions to the Rhine. After his victoy, the Rhine was the border […]

Frankish gravestone, found in Niederdollendorf
Middle Ages

Early Middle Ages, Frankish Empire

At the beginning of the 5th century, two groups of Franks had emerged: the Salian Franks lived at Tournai, Cambrai and Arras, today’s Belgium and northern France, back then in the area of the Western Roman Empire. As allies (foederati) they fought in the Roman army. The Ripuarian Franken on […]

Old view of Siebengebirge and Rhine from Rolandseck
20th Century

Weimar Republic

Germany, 1918/1919. After the defeat in the World War I, Germany was in disastrous shape. The war had ended, but the country was not in peace. Emperor Wilhelm II had finally abdicated, the Social Democrat Friedrich Ebert (SPD) had taken over government, but he could not win the old elites for […]

Wolkenburg and a scratch of the medieval castle on top (collage)
Middle Ages

Ottonian and Salian dynasties

We start with the High Middle Ages in 925, when the Rhineland, disputed for a long time between the Western and Eastern Frankish kingdom, became part of the East Frankish kingdom for good. Saxon “Ottonian” Dynasty At that time ruled the Saxon Duke Henry I, the first non-Frank on the […]

A 1848er
Prussian Rhineland

Revolution 1848

Germany, 1848.  The great social need and pent-up anger against the restoration policy finally erupted in the March revolution. The news from Paris spread quickly, and already in the first days of March uprisings occurred in Germany. In February 1848, revolution broke out in France, King Louis-Philippe of France was […]

Wallenstein and his troops
Early Modern Age

Thirty Years’ War

Holy Roman Empire, at the beginning of the 17th century. The ecclesiastical states Cologne, Mainz and Trier in the West and the worldly states in the South were mainly Catholic, the North mainly Lutheran, and Calvinism had spread in the Palatinate, Nassau, Hesse-Kassel, Brandenburg, Switzerland and the Netherlands. The confessions […]