Ehrenbreitsteinstein 1919
Revolution and Rhineland Occupation

Crossroads: Great War

A hundred years ago, the Great War raged in Europe. The sequel to my emigrants’ story At home on the Rhine and in America, set in the Rhineland between 1914 and 1922, depicts the hardships that our emigrants and their family and friends in Europe endure. The Allied Rhineland occupation brings […]

Great war, gas attack, poppy
Revolution and Rhineland Occupation

The Great War

At the beginning of the 20th century, two blocks all armed to a maximum stood against each other: England, France and Russia („Triple Entente“) on one side, Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy („Dreibund“) on the other. Austria-Hungary, the Habsburg Empire, the multi-ethnic-state, was quite an anachronism, and about to fall apart. […]

German Revolution, Berlin November 1918
Revolution and Rhineland Occupation

German Revolution

Germany, October 1918. The war was lost. By the “October reforms”, Germany became a constitutional monarchy whose Chancellor, Max von Baden, was responsible to the Reichstag. Nonetheless, the military commanders ordered, by their own authority, the navy in Kiel to set sail for a last battle against the British Royal Navy.

Revolution and Rhineland Occupation

Allied Rhineland Occupation

November 1918. The armistice of Compiègne was signed. For the people on the Rhine it was not over yet, because the allied occupation of the Rhine began. That was some 100 years ago.