Bonn around 1700
Early Modern Age

Age of absolutism

Holy Roman Empire, at the end of the 17th Century. After the Thirty Years War, large areas were desolated and deserted. Since the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, the Catholic, Protestant and Calvinist confessions were recognized, but the Anabaptists were persecuted. With their demands for religious liberty and a radical […]

Hogenberg, attack on Königswinte
Early Modern Age

Lutherans, Calvinists, Anabaptists

The Rhineland around 1530. Since the Late Middle Ages, large parts of our region including the villages of Oberdollendorf, Niederdollendorf, Küdinghoven, Oberkassel and Honnef with the Löwenburg mountain belonged to the Duchy of Berg. By the time of the reformation, the duchies of Jülich, Cleves (on the left bank of […]

Wallenstein and his troops
Early Modern Age

Thirty Years’ War

Holy Roman Empire, at the beginning of the 17th century. The ecclesiastical states Cologne, Mainz and Trier in the West and the worldly states in the South were mainly Catholic, the North mainly Lutheran, and Calvinism had spread in the Palatinate, Nassau, Hesse-Kassel, Brandenburg, Switzerland and the Netherlands. The confessions […]